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In recent years, statisticians and researchers have continued to vigorously sound the alarm on the use and abuse of p-values in clinical studies and statistical modeling in general. Look no further than the official statement of the American Statistical Association (ASA), “The ASA’s Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose,” that was published just two years ago in response to the ever more heated debate on the confirmatory role of p-values in quantitative science and the validity of statistical inference. While many in the scientific community have generated discussions and commentaries on the misuse of p-values, the ASA’s policy statement succinctly synthesizes “several widely agreed upon principles underlying the proper use and interpretation of the p-value.” The ASA’s statement puts forth six principles aiming to guide practitioners in their search for statistically significant effects, ameliorate the problem of false discovery rates and irreproducibility of results, and thus improve on the applicability of the scientific method.
This past March, a ransomware attack caused government operations in Atlanta to come to a complete standstill. It left courts unable to process warrants, residents unable to pay bills online, and travelers unable to use airport Wi-Fi. Attacks like these have become the rule rather than the exception for businesses, with former FBI director Robert Mueller saying it best: “…there are only two types of companies: those that have been hacked and those that will be hacked.” Everyone is a target, so the seeming inevitability of becoming a hacking victim has now made risk management strategies more important than ever.