FCAS, FSA, FCIA, MAAA
Independent Contractor and Consulting Actuary

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Steven G. Lehmann

Steve Lehmann is a Consulting Actuary with Abacus Actuarial Consulting, LLC, with over 40 years of actuarial experience. His practice includes loss reserving, ratemaking, development of pricing strategies including coordination of underwriting and rating programs, financial examinations, loss reserve opinions, rate filings, residual market studies and rate of return analysis. His skill set includes testifying before numerous regulatory and legislative bodies and before an arbitration panel on a variety of insurance matters including ratemaking, risk classification, agents’ contingent commissions and fair rates of return. He has a strong background in pricing and reserving of insurance products.

Mr. Lehmann, a co-founder of Pinnacle Actuarial Resources, Inc., retired from the firm in 2011, serving as the firm’s President from 2003 – 2008. His association with Pinnacle continues, working as an Independent Contractor from the firm’s Bloomington, Illinois office.

Mr. Lehmann is a Fellow of the Casualty Actuarial Society (FCAS), a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries (FSA), a Member of the American Academy of Actuaries (MAAA) and a Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries (FCIA). He is a past President of the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) and the American Academy of Actuaries (AAA) and has served as Chair of the Boards of both organizations. He has also served as Vice President and Chair of the Casualty Practice Council of the AAA and Chair of the Actuarial Standards Board Ratemaking Subcommittee. He is certified by ARIAS (AIDA Reinsurance and Insurance Arbitration Society) as one of some 400+ certified reinsurance arbitrators in the U.S.

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Case Studies

Administrative Rate Hearings

Administrative Rate Hearings

Pinnacle has developed an excellent working knowledge of state rate regulatory requirements and in challenging states such as California, Florida and Texas.

In California, Pinnacle has provided expert witness testimony in support of insurer rate requests on numerous occasions, covering issues such as the treatment of reinsurance costs in catastrophe ratemaking, auto classification plans and appropriate trends for auto insurance.

In Florida, Pinnacle consultants have assisted insurers with homeowner rate filings before the Office of Insurance Regulation addressing such issues as territorial ratemaking, catastrophe loads and appropriate trend selections.

In Texas, Pinnacle provided expert witness testimony to the Insurance Commissioner as part of the 2003 rate regulatory reforms. Since then, Pinnacle has assisted insurers with contested personal lines rate requests.

Minnesota Automobile No-Fault Impact Analyses

Minnesota Automobile No-Fault Impact Analyses

The Insurance Federation of Minnesota retained Pinnacle in 2006 to conduct an independent actuarial study to determine the possible cost implications of changing Minnesota’s current no-fault law. The scenarios were:

  • A complete repeal of the no-fault law, which would be replaced with a tort system including mandatory liability insurance. We also priced first party medical payments benefits of $2,500, $5,000 and $10,000 as replacements for current personal injury protection (PIP) benefits.
  • Implementing a medical fee schedule. This option would consider two different fee schedules: the Minnesota Worker’s Compensation fee schedule, and 115% of the Medicare fee schedule.
  • Introducing a Michigan-style verbal threshold implementation with several PIP limit options.
  • Capping treatments on soft tissue injuries to $2,500.
  • Making alternative care optional for an additional premium.
  • Reducing the PIP benefit limit from $20,000 each for the separate medical and non-medical limits (with $40,000 of coverage total) to $10,000 for each separate sub-limit. This would also include an additional $10,000 of coverage for “trauma care.” 

Territory / Summit Analysis

Territory / Summit Analysis

The insurer had not reviewed or adjusted their territorial boundaries in several years; and their current territories were not based upon an analysis of their underlying loss experience.

Pinnacle began with an evaluation of available insurer and external industry data at the ZIP code level as well as their current and future policy processing capabilities. After all of the experience data was adjusted to a common base level, we used our Summit® software product to smooth the data to develop an initial adjusted pure premium by ZIP code to reflect both experience in a ZIP code and in neighboring ZIP codes. The number of additional neighboring ZIP codes used was dependent upon attaining a sufficient exposure level.

The smoothed data was then clustered using Summit® on both a contiguous and non-contiguous basis. The insurer needed to decide whether to maintain relatively contiguous definitions or use more granular and theoretically accurate non-contiguous definitions. Using statistical measures, we identified and graphed optimal definition sets. Non-contiguous definitions were selected by the client. To minimize the number of territories with a limited geographic area or only a few ZIP codes, some manual combination of “outlying” ZIP codes with territories (clusters) with similar adjusted pure premiums was performed.

Finally, we assisted the insurer in developing the necessary filing support material to gain approval. The new program is generating new business in areas of historical profitability but previously less than average competiveness. 

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