Index of Services

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Administrative Hearing Support

Pinnacle’s consultants have provided both testimony and expert reports in a wide variety of administrative hearings, lawsuits, arbitrations and other proceedings.

Alternative Risk Transfer Program Design

Pinnacle helps alternative market risk owners, captive managers and service providers determine risk retentions that optimize the balance between the cost of risk transfer and loss volatility.


Pinnacle has consultants who are experienced as expert witnesses in arbitrations and also ARIAS-certified arbitrators.

Audit Support

Pinnacle consultants deal with auditors daily, assisting them in serving their customers and evaluating the work products of other actuaries.


Pinnacle strives to construct benchmarks for any analysis, whether ratemaking, loss reserving or some other use, as close as possible to replicating the nature of the underlying data being reviewed.

Capital Allocation

Pinnacle actuaries have real world experience addressing issues related to allocating capital for pricing and associated profitability metrics.

Capital Modeling

Pinnacle’s team of highly qualified actuaries has experience in all areas of capital modeling, ranging from regulatory perspectives and rating agency models to models reflecting individual company risk and reward preferences.

Catastrophe Exposure Management

Pinnacle can assist you in controlling your property catastrophe exposure by determining the impact of policy changes, including deductibles, or reviewing geographic areas where exposures are driving your reinsurance purchases.

Catastrophe Modeling Output

Pinnacle has experience working with model output from all the major catastrophe modelers for hurricane, other wind, earthquake and fire, and making recommendations for rating plans, territory boundaries, catastrophe loads, rate filings, and reinsurance/risk financing structures.


Pinnacle uses predictive analytics to help you better understand how key factors such as reporting delays, vendors, independent adjusters, attorney involvement, injury type and claimant characteristics impact your claims process.

Class Factor Analysis

Pinnacle helps insurers identify rating plan elements that can be more appropriately priced or added for additional risk segmentation.


Closed Claims Studies

Pinnacle has compiled relevant databases for use as the basis for legislative costing analyses and other studies.

Collateral Negotiations

Pinnacle provides loss reserve analyses and other diagnostics in support of collateral negotiations associated with deductible and/or self-insured retentions.

Competitive Analysis

Pinnacle has a powerful set of competitive analysis tools that provide in-depth market analyses and enable comparison of premiums, rating factors and tiering plans, often with mapping and batch rating capabilities.

Continuing Education for Attorneys

Pinnacle provides special interest seminars for attorneys that include loss reserving, ratemaking and valuation to explain key issues and best practices.

Cost Allocations

Pinnacle is experienced developing cost allocation mechanisms by member or department in the most equitable manner using elements such as – exposure, geographic cost differences and actual loss experience.

Credit Scoring

Pinnacle can help you optimizing your use of credit-related characteristics to help you develop and maintain a competitive advantage.

Damage Calculations

Pinnacle has experience working with large datasets and creating models to assess damages and develop scenario outcomes.

Data Processing / Conversions

Pinnacle sees a lot of data in a lot of different formats. We efficiently and effectively handle non-traditional data formats, conversion of text-based and hardcopy reports, data cleansing, and advanced conversions and summarization of data.

Deposition Support

Pinnacle’s consultants are experienced in helping lawyers ask the right questions and understanding the answers in depositions of other actuarial expert witnesses.

DFA and Stochastic Financial Modeling

Pinnacle actuaries have been leaders in Dynamic Financial Analysis and other forms of stochastic financial modeling for over 15 years.

Diagnostic Tests

Assessing the reasonableness of indicated loss and loss adjustment expense reserves after the analysis is completed is an essential element of the loss reserve analysis. In particular, measures such as loss ratios, changes since the prior evaluation, implied claim frequencies and severities and costs per unit of exposure are a few of the diagnostic tests employed when considering the reasonableness of indicated reserves.


Management sometimes wishes to reflect the time value of money in funding projections, accruals for unpaid claims liabilities and other valuations. The two most important parameters for doing so are the assumed interest rate and the underlying claim payment pattern. Assessing reasonable values for these parameters is not trivial as the interest rate may need an adjustment for risk while the claim payment pattern may not be readily available.

Dividend / Assessment Analysis

Pinnacle has extensive experience helping insurers, captives, and self-insurance programs determine appropriate dividend levels and actuarial sound allocation methods.

Expense Analysis

Pinnacle can help insurers, captive and other self-insurance programs evaluate and benchmark insurance program expenses, including fronting fees, captive management costs, commissions, other acquisition and general expenses, taxes, and loss adjustment expenses.

Expert Witness

Pinnacle consultants have experience in providing expert witness testimony in federal, state and county courts, in arbitrations and before state legislatures.

Expert Witness Testimony

Pinnacle provides costing and impact analysis of proposed legislative changes and also provides written and oral testimony in support of our analyses.

Exposure Management

Pinnacle has strong experience identifying loss exposures and recognizing that differences exist between businesses. Upon classifying the various exposures, we can help establish a proper structure to minimize losses.

Financial Examination Support

Pinnacle provides actuarial expertise to financial examinations on behalf of auditors and state insurance departments. Both external peer review and independent loss evaluations are available.

Frequency/Severity Analysis

Pinnacle helps customers evaluate historical loss experience by breaking it down into two components–claim counts and average claim severities. This can identify historical trends and areas for improvement.

Government Insurance Programs

Pinnacle’s team of experienced experts can provide expertise to help craft and quantify the impact of solutions for issues affecting the insurance market in today’s rapidly changing environment.

Higher Confidence Levels

Pinnacle has a variety of methods to estimate indicated funding levels and unpaid claims liabilities at higher levels of statistical confidence.

Identify, Explain and Assess Issues

Since Pinnacle’s consultants have career backgrounds ranging from large to small insurers, regulatory authorities and statistical organizations, we deliver a complete perspective to each assignment.

Impact Analyses

Pinnacle has experience not only determining the cost of potential legislative changes, but also assessing their impact on affected segments and stakeholders.

Industry Studies / Market Assessments

Pinnacle has strong experience identifying loss exposures and recognizing that differences exist between businesses. Upon classifying the various exposures, we can help establish a proper structure to minimize losses.

Legislative Costing

Pinnacle excels in providing expected changes in insurance costs due to proposed legislation on behalf of state insurance regulators, state legislative committees, insurance trade organizations, and state associations of physicians, hospitals and trial lawyers.

Lifetime Customer Value

Pinnacle uses lifetime customer value analysis to develop a long-term view of customer value and determine how you can best use this information to make more profitable long-term decisions.

Liquidation & Rehabilitation

Pinnacle has extensive experience assisting in insurance company liquidations and rehabilitations.  This experience enables us to handle unusual loss exposures and financial examinations to deliver actuarially-sound and authoritative estimates of insurer reserves and other liabilities. We also apply our expertise and experience for:

  • Run-off reserve evaluations
  • Pro formas and other financial projections
  • Management consulting services
  • Pricing and rate adequacy reviews
  • Loss portfolio transfers (LPTs) and commutations

Loss Fund Projections

Pinnacle develops loss fund projections to determine expected future losses, relying on past claims experience.

Loss Portfolio Transfer

Pinnacle represents the interests of both buyers and sellers of blocks of business providing independent evaluations of a program’s indicated unpaid claims liabilities often reflecting provisions for the time value of money (i.e., discounting) and uncertainty (risk margins).

Loss Reserve Analyses

Pinnacle helps a wide variety of customers establish a reasonable accrual for unpaid loss and loss adjustment expense obligations.

Loss Reserve Analyses - Ceded Losses / Schedule F

Pinnacle has the special skills and knowledge to understand the unique nature of various reinsurance treaty types and their potential impact on loss reserve estimates.

Loss Reserve Analyses - Latent Mass Tort Reserving

Pinnacle’s expertise can help you understand the issues surrounding latent mass torts and project loss reserves for these difficult and uncertain exposures.

Loss Reserve Analyses - Reinsurance Reserves

Pinnacle’s consultants have the special skills and knowledge required to evaluate unpaid claims obligations related to reinsurance programs.

Loss Reserve Analysis Design

Pinnacle’s approach to each loss reserve analysis is customized to the unique characteristics of each program, such as lines of coverage, geographic mix, number of claims, per occurrence limits and other factors.


Pinnacle’s predictive analytics team performs marketing analyses that help you more effectively target profitable new business.

Policy Forms

Pinnacle is experienced at comparing and contrasting coverage and pricing differences for many commercial and personal lines policy forms, including specialty products.

Predictive Analytics Data Services

Pinnacle helps customers preparing databases for predictive analytics techniques and other future needs. Many of these studies also involve the use of external databases.

Price Optimization

Pinnacle uses price optimization to help you find the best premium to charge subject to a set of pricing, customer response, and competitive constraints.


Pinnacle’s predictive analytics help customers price insurance products using sophisticated risk segmentation to better segment and price your coverage.

Pricing Commutations

Pinnacle provides commutation pricing analyses that often require an actuarial review of the net present value of the outstanding losses to the treaty.

Pro Formas

Pinnacle provides pro forma financial statements that are often required for new captives and insurers or companies changing as a result of operational changes, mergers, or acquisitions.

Product Management / Monitoring

Pinnacle can help handle many aspects of product management ranging from profitability estimates to customer response modeling to price optimization.  Pinnacle is also well equipped to assist in program coverage changes and developing new leading edge products.

Program Development

Pinnacle has experience in all stages of program development—from creating a new, unique program to program conversion and implementation.

Rate Filings / Regulatory

We prepare commercial and personal lines rate and rule filings for insurers in all U.S. jurisdictions. We also assist several state insurance departments with rate filing support.

Rate Indications

Pinnacle provides rate levels indications that determine the rate change necessary for insurers to meet their target profit levels. We also can provide actuarial memoranda documenting the indications and supporting rate filings.

Rate Level Analysis

Pinnacle helps insurance programs establish reasonable projections of future loss and loss expenses to determine actuarially sound premium contributions.

Regulatory Support

Pinnacle has extensive experience working both with insurance regulators and on behalf of customers interacting with regulators on a wide variety of issues including ratemaking, loss reserving, government insurance programs and legislative costing.

Reinsurance Analysis

Pinnacle assists a wide variety of customers evaluating reinsurance contracts focusing on the relative cost versus coverage provided and risk/reward trade offs. Our analyses may also focus on risk transfer elements.

Reinsurance Evaluation

Information coming soon.

Reinsurance Optimization

Pinnacle’s consultants can help you realize your strategic objectives by helping you optimize your reinsurance program.

Reinsurance Pricing

Pinnacle has developed and reviewed both experience and exposure-based reinsurance pricing models for a wide variety of property and casualty lines. We have also provided staffing to reinsurers during renewal season.

Reinsurance Underwriting Audit Support

Pinnacle is well qualified to assist in reinsurance underwriting audits due to our experience as company actuaries and product managers.

Reinsurance Underwriting Submissions

The reinsurance underwriting submission is one of the primary means of communicating to reinsurers the unique qualities of your company. Pinnacle’s consultants are more than actuaries. Our experience as reinsurance underwriters and product managers will provide valuable insight on best representing your firm to potential reinsurance partners.

Residual Market Optimization

Pinnacle uses predictive analytics to assist insurers to compare their premiums with a more detailed expected loss calculation to develop more effective risk ceding rules.

Retention and Conversion Analysis

Pinnacle is experienced helping insurers analyze differences in retention and conversion differences based on its risk characteristics, marketplace competitiveness, marketing channels and historical price changes.

Retrospective Analyses

Pinnacle has experience evaluating the actual results after legislative changes are implemented to determine how the actual results compare to the initially anticipated effect.

Risk Aggregations

Pinnacle actuaries are experts in identifying how risks interact and aggregate and in developing methods for quantifying and mitigating these aggregations.

Risk and Reward Analyses

Pinnacle understands the dynamics behind the risk-reward trade-off and can help you properly evaluate which risks are worth pursuing.

Risk Appetite

Pinnacle can help you articulate your firm’s risk appetite and devise strategic plans and risk financing techniques that complement your vision.

Risk Assessment

Pinnacle’s enterprise risk management professionals can help you understand and assess the risks facing your company or customers.

Risk Avoidance and Control

Pinnacle’s risk management consultants are well versed in helping you differentiate between risks that must be avoided and those that can be controlled.

Risk Retention Studies

Pinnacle helps customers evaluate the proper insurance retentions based on factors, including capitalization, management attitudes, market conditions, expected costs for excess coverage and several other factors.

Roll Forward Projections

Pinnacle provides roll forward projections that forecast claims activity and unpaid claims obligations a few months or more into the future based on current data.

Service Provider Analysis

Pinnacle has extensive experience evaluating captive managers, third party administrators and other service providers. These benchmarking exercises can assess claim reporting and settlement patterns, average case reserves, closed, report or ultimate claims severities for all claims or a specific claim type (e.g., lost time workers compensation claims) or a myriad of other metrics

Statement of Actuarial Opinion

Many of Pinnacle’s consultants are qualified and approved to provide formal Statement of Actuarial Opinion (SAO) on behalf of insurance companies, captives, risk retention groups and self-insureds.

Symbol Analysis

Pinnacle has created vehicle classification factors that replace or supplement existing model year and symbol factors.

System and Program Conversions

Pinnacle helps customers smoothly transition through changing policy management and rating systems, as well as significant changes to insurance programs.

Technology Alignment / Integration

Pinnacle has the expertise and experience to efficiently align the necessary technologies and data platforms to allow our actuarial team to focus on modeling and results.

Territory Analysis

Pinnacle has sophisticated tools to help customers enhance territory definitions and relativities taking advantage of by-peril data, external information and state-of-the-art predictive analytics.

Territory Definitions

Pinnacle can help insurers develop state-of-the-art rating territories by applying territorial clustering and smoothing.

Training and Implementation Services

Pinnacle helps to establish a solid foundation within a certain service area, such as predictive analytics, to provide the training and technology implementation that allows your team to apply the same techniques for your organization.

Trend Analysis

Pinnacle develops trend analyses that evaluate historical and prospective changes in the value of exposures, premiums, claim counts and average claim severities.


Pinnacle helps their customers use underwriting applications of predictive analytic that enable analytical reviews of underwriting guidelines, straight through processing strategies, rules-based credit and MVR ordering, and selection/rejection criteria.

Underwriting and Tiering

Pinnacle helps customer develop tiering plans and underwriting scorecards that incorporate a variety of risk characteristics into a single pricing tool.

Underwriting Evaluation

Pinnacle can review underwriting guidelines for reasonableness, appropriateness and competitiveness.

Vehicle Classification

Pinnacle uses predictive analytics and developments in auto data to help you determine more accurate vehicle classifications.

Witness Preparation

Pinnacle provides “been-there-done-that” perspective that is helpful in preparing witnesses for the unfamiliar and frequently stressful litigation landscape.

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