ACAS, MAAA, CERA
Managing Principal

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Joseph A. Herbers

Joe Herbers is Pinnacle’s managing principal and has 35 years of consulting experience. His practice is concentrated in providing loss reserving and funding studies for a wide variety of entities – both traditional insurance companies and alternative market entities. Mr. Herbers’ areas of focus include policyholder owned group captives, large deductible and/or self-insured entities, public entity pools and nonstandard auto writers.

His skill set includes loss reserving for all lines of business, hands-on interaction with alternative market entities, networking with service providers and traditional ratemaking for all types of property/casualty insurance exposure. Mr. Herbers has served many roles as a volunteer of both the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) and the American Academy of Actuaries (AAA). He is a regular speaker at industry events.


Publications and Media

September 2020 APEX Webinar
Group Captives 101
Authored by Joseph A. Herbers.

January 2020 APEX
Statements of Actuarial Opinion at Year-End 2019
Authored by Joseph A. Herbers and Aaron N. Hillebrandt.

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Case Studies

Funding Study

Funding Study

Pinnacle was approached by an aircraft manufacturer to provide recommended funding for various aviation and liability coverages. Pinnacle’s initial steps included discussing coverages to be provided and what data was available to complete the funding study. The captive was a start-up with no loss information on which to determine appropriate funding levels. Pinnacle was able to determine that the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) had a database of aircraft incidents that recorded both the manufacturer and model of the aircraft involved in the incident. Since the manufacturer was able to provide the number of units produced, Pinnacle was able to determine the frequency and severity of the incidents and project ultimate funding levels. The captive is currently operational after receiving regulatory approval.

Liquidation - Workers Compensation

Liquidation - Workers Compensation

Pinnacle was retained by the liquidator of a monoline workers' compensation carrier to estimate outstanding liabilities and provide expert testimony in support of the loss reserve estimation.

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

Domestic U.S. property/casualty insurers and risk retention groups are required to file an Annual Statement with state regulators each year by March 1. Part of that filing includes the submission of a formal Statement of Actuarial Opinion (SAO) by a qualified Appointed Actuary as to the reasonableness of held loss and loss adjustment expense reserves. The SAO must be one of five types:

  • Reasonable
  • Inadequate/Deficient
  • Excessive/Redundant
  • Qualified
  • No Opinion

In addition to the SAO, most jurisdictions require an Actuarial Opinion Summary (AOS) providing more detail on the Appointed Actuary’s specific findings by March 15. Lastly, a formal report narrative in support of the SAO and AOS is required to be available by May 1.

As the SAO is a compliance document, the primary audience is state regulators but the individual company must arrange for the service to be provided.

A recent SAO for one of our clients touched on many of the required disclosures:

  1. The adequacy of held reserves on a net basis were below the low end of our range of reasonable reserves until we took into account anticipated salvage and subrogation recoveries.
  2. The unearned premium reserves for long duration contracts were substantial and we conducted a review to determine they were adequate
  3. The Company held material loss and loss adjustment expense reserves for pools and associations. In order avoid having to issue a Qualified Opinion, we separately computed indicated reserves for two of the pools/associations, and obtained an SAO from the Appointed Actuary for the National Workers Compensation Reinsurance Pool.
  4. Reinsurance recoveries were in doubt for certain carriers as balance were sometimes overdue by more than 90 days. After reviewing the reinsurers’ A. M. Best ratings, we made the required disclosures about reinsurance collectability. 

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