FCAS, MAAA, CERA
Principal and Consulting Actuary

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Robert J. Walling III

Robert Walling is a Principal and Consulting Actuary with Pinnacle Actuarial Resources, Inc. and has been in the insurance industry since 1989, consulting since 1997. He is focused on actuarial studies for captives and self-insureds, enterprise risk management (ERM), commercial lines ratemaking and loss reserving, legislative costing, regulatory consulting and litigation support. He has consecutively been named one of Captive Review’s Captive Power 50. He has served on numerous CAS and AAA committees, task forces and working groups, several as the chair. He is also a member of the faculty of the International Center for Captive Insurance Education (ICCIE). Mr. Walling is a frequent speaker at industry meetings on captives and alternative markets, ERM, insurance regulatory issues, medical professional liability and government insurance program topics, predictive analytics and professionalism.

Publications and Media

March 2019 APEX Webinar
2018 Risk Retention Group Benchmarking Study
Authored by Erich A. Brandt and Gregory W. Fears, Jr. and Robert J. Walling III.

2018 Risk Retention Group Benchmarking Study
2018 RRG Benchmarking Study - *Sign in required to view*
Authored by Erich A. Brandt and Gregory W. Fears, Jr. and Robert J. Walling III.

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Case Studies

Competitive Analysis - Commercial Lines

Competitive Analysis - Commercial Lines

Pinnacle was approached by a major national commercial lines insurer to provide comprehensive competitive analysis of the businessowners policy (BOP) and commercial automobile insurance market places. Pinnacle’s analysis began with a comprehensive review of the products filed by the leading twenty insurers of these products examining coverage features, rating elements, tiering and scoring elements, unique coverage features and several other key product development elements. Following this initial step, Pinnacle performed detailed territory and premium comparisons for several states using a dynamic premium comparison engine that allowed investigation at the class, coverage amount and territory level of detail. The company used a batch rating feature to develop indicated rate level estimates. Mapping features looking at ranking and pricing differences were also produced. All of this information was incorporated into a countrywide overhaul of the company’s products and pricing.

Contractor's Liability

Contractor's Liability

Pinnacle was asked to provide a legislative costing analysis and expert testimony regarding proposed legislation that would substantially expand coverage for construction defects in Oregon. Pinnacle’s study and testimony focused not only on the current conditions of the contractors’ liability insurance market compared to other states, but also the historical changes seen when other states made similar changes. Our analysis also focused on the relationship between home warranties and commercial general liability insurance policies and how these risk mitigation techniques differ over time after a home is completed.

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

U S Domestic Statement of Actuarial Opinion

Domestic U.S. property/casualty insurers and risk retention groups are required to file an Annual Statement with state regulators each year by March 1. Part of that filing includes the submission of a formal Statement of Actuarial Opinion (SAO) by a qualified Appointed Actuary as to the reasonableness of held loss and loss adjustment expense reserves. The SAO must be one of five types:

  • Reasonable
  • Inadequate/Deficient
  • Excessive/Redundant
  • Qualified
  • No Opinion

In addition to the SAO, most jurisdictions require an Actuarial Opinion Summary (AOS) providing more detail on the Appointed Actuary’s specific findings by March 15. Lastly, a formal report narrative in support of the SAO and AOS is required to be available by May 1.

As the SAO is a compliance document, the primary audience is state regulators but the individual company must arrange for the service to be provided.

A recent SAO for one of our clients touched on many of the required disclosures:

  1. The adequacy of held reserves on a net basis were below the low end of our range of reasonable reserves until we took into account anticipated salvage and subrogation recoveries.
  2. The unearned premium reserves for long duration contracts were substantial and we conducted a review to determine they were adequate
  3. The Company held material loss and loss adjustment expense reserves for pools and associations. In order avoid having to issue a Qualified Opinion, we separately computed indicated reserves for two of the pools/associations, and obtained an SAO from the Appointed Actuary for the National Workers Compensation Reinsurance Pool.
  4. Reinsurance recoveries were in doubt for certain carriers as balance were sometimes overdue by more than 90 days. After reviewing the reinsurers’ A. M. Best ratings, we made the required disclosures about reinsurance collectability. 

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